Dance Musician | Audio Engineer | Sound Designer



Sometimes in the dance studio, musical confusion arises between dancers and musicians.  To help, I believe it’s helpful to begin with one thing we all share, the pulse. Pulse has to do with what is felt. To me, the pulse is an emphasis of the body, usually a point of weight or momentum, an impact, a maximum (or minimum), the onset of a sound or of light. In music and dance, the pulse often occurs periodically (an even amount of time or space between each occurrence) and each sound and movement exists in relationship to it – with it, against it, weaving in and out of it. On the most fundamental level, I imagine music and dance sharing the pulse, coded deeply within us from our ancestral past. As bipeds, when we locomote, there is a pulse, from step to step, which is both felt in the body and audible.


Often, musicians and dancers bring the pulse into the conscious, numerical/analytical mind by counting it. Musicians call the pulses "beats", and generally, dancers often use the term "counts".  Beats and counts are synonyms - That is, they mean the same thing. Musicians have usually learned a very specific way of counting beats, subdivisions (smaller rhythms which fit inside the beat), and other rhythm units (such as measures and phrases), and it is very helpful for dancers/dance teachers to have some language in place to help when communicating with musicians. Both musicians and dancers count rhythm using numbers (for the counts/beats), and some combination of other syllables for subdivisions (“and”, “ah” are common for subdivisions).


Sometimes difficulty arises in communication about the feeling of movement and the specific counts in a dance combination. From the start of their training, most musicians count verbally and work in relationship to a constant beat (often using a metronome to train in a sense of steady pulse). Dancers are often more adept at sensing how movement feels, sometimes in relationship to the beat, and don’t spend as much time verbalizing.

Meter can be understood as the link between what is felt and what is counted.  It is a way of describing the feel and counting the number of notes between counts.

There are three types of meter - Simple, compound and complex, in music theory parlance.  I prefer to use the terms Duple, Triple, and Complex, because they are a little more intuitive. Duple meter groups notes by two and multiples of two and has a “straight” feel. Triple meter groups notes by threes and has a “round” or “swinging” feel. Complex meters are counted in odd numbers other than 3, such as 5, 7, 10, 11, 13 and up, and often feel “uneven”, “lopsided” or “like one leg is longer than the other”, although if you encounter/use them enough, they can begin to feel totally familiar and natural like duple and triple meters.

  • Duple meters are usually counted: “One-and-Two-and-Three-and-Four-and-Five-and-Six-and...”
  • Triple meters are usually counted: “One-and-ah-Two-and-ah-Three-and-ah-Four-and-ah…”

From a musical counting standpoint, a phrase can be understood as the way that counts are grouped, to correspond with a segment of movement.  The most common type of musical phrase of any meter, in a dance context, has 8 beats or counts. However, a phrase can have any number of counts.

…and here’s where things can get a little tricky. Often dancers will say “this is an 8” to mean a phrase with groupings of 8 counts, in duple meter: “One-and-Two-and-Three-and-Four-and…”. And similar terminology could be used for a phrase with groupings of a different number of counts, in duple meter: “a nine”, “a twelve”, “a six”, etc., all counted “One-and-Two-and-Three-and-Four-and-Five-and…”.

However, the terms “a nine”, “a twelve”, “a six” could also be used to indicate a phrase with a triple meter feel with one third as many counts (pulses) as its name. For example:

  • Three counts subdivided by threes (triple meter), resulting in nine total subdivisions could be called/counted as “a nine” (3X3=9)(pulses or counts in ALL CAPS): “ONE-two-three-FOUR-five-six-SEVEN-eight-nine”
  • Four counts subdivided by threes (triple meter), resulting in twelve total subdivisions could also be called/counted as “a twelve” (4X3=12): ONE-two-three-FOUR-five-six-SEVEN-eight-nine-TEN-eleven-twelve”
  •  Two counts (triple meter) - “a six”, etc.  

In these cases, the numbers 9, 12, and 6 refer to the total number of subdivisions in each phrase, not the number of counts.


I have a few specific ways that I like things done in my “shop”.  These things save time during setup and strike, increase efficiency, make sound check easier, keep people safe, keep gear functioning well, reduce stress and frustration with misplaced things, project an image of professional operation, and extend professional courtesy to co-workers and the people who use the space and equipment next.


  • Excess cable is coiled under the mic stand to which it belongs, or by the monitor to which it belongs - this saves time if something needs to move (and things WILL need to move)

  • Mic cables should NOT be wrapped around mic stands, they should fall loosely from the mic, and coil or pass beneath the stand.  If you’d like, you can loosely loop the cable over a knob on the stand.

  • Use subsnakes onstage to reduce mic cable run length and keep the stage tidy

Load-in, load-out and storage

  • Microphone stands are stored with the counterweight up, near the pivot joint, with the stand feet flush with the bottom of the main shaft. 

  • Use wheels if you can to move equipment, especially heavy equipment.  Avoid lifting and carrying as much as possible.
  • Microphone clips stay with their microphone!  This keeps clips from getting damaged in storage, and eliminates situations where you can't find the right clip for a mic.

  • ONLY use console tape (or "artist's" tape) on the console, rack cases, cables or any piece of audio gear. DO NOT use gaff, masking (blue or any other color), duct, or ANY other type of tape!

  • If a piece of gear is moving, it should be in its case, a rack, a bag or a tub.  If it is moving, it should have SOME kind of protection.

  • Lift cables over rolling cases, not the other way around!

Pro Audio Acumen

  • Clear/zero the mixer/console and any outboard gear.  Return the knobs, faders, switches and input and output patch to the neutral state when the show is completed.

  • Patch one-to-one whenever possible.  If needed, cross-patch at only one point, onstage or at console.

  • Return the patch room patch to it’s neutral or normalled state when show is completed.